Module 1: Models, methods and knowledge of care
(Keywords: person-centred approach; human-centred care; gentle care; validation; individualised care)
- Professional caregivers (initial training for students and in-service training)
- Professional carers with no previous training in caregiving, mostly migrant (initial training and in-service training)
- Family carers (initial training and in-service training)
- Volunteers (initial training and in-service training)
geriatrician, gerontologist, psychologist, social worker, sociologist and pedagogue trained in the person-centred approach, gentle care and good treatment.
Purposes and goals (knowledge, skills, attitudes):
Purpose 1: To know the different models and methods based on person centred care
- to know the principles and methods of the person-centred approach
- to know the principles and methods of “bientraitance”
- to know the principles and methods of “gentle care”
Purpose 2: To understand the normal and pathological characteristics of the aging process.
- to know how to differentiate between the major cognitive-behavioural syndromes
Purpose 3: To reflect on the professional experience of care, the relationship of care and care at home in the light of the models and methods proposed.
- to interpret the problematic behaviours of the cared-for person and translating them into needs
Purpose 4: To adopt a person centred relational approach, in a multidimensional perspective, including all basic needs.
- to observe the person as a whole, recognising their potential, preferences and interests
- to know how to deal with specific life issues
- The representations of old age and the elderly in our society (the myths of old age)
- The evolution of “care”: historical perspective and social representations
- Approaches to the care relationship
- The person-centred approach: issues and implications
- The “bientraitance”: issues and implications
- Gentle care: issues and implications
- Validation: issues and implications
the following content should be selected according to the needs of the learners
The normal and pathological aging process
- Cognitive and psychic aging.
- Normal and pathological aging.
- Successful aging.
- The evolution of aging in the future.
- Sociological and demographic data.
The consequences of aging
- The fragility of the elderly.
- The characteristics of the older person’s illnesses.
- The expression of symptoms specific to older people.
- The geriatric patient: reserve and adaptation.
- Functional autonomy and its importance.
The major cognitive behavioural syndromes
- Neuro-degenerative syndromes.
- Cognitive and associated behavioural disorders.
- The organisation of daily care and support.
- Confusional syndrome: care interventions and reassuring attitudes.
- The depressive syndrome and the suicidal risk: their particularities in the elderly.
Specific life issues
- The notions of consent and assent.
- Rights and freedoms, the trusted person, advance directives.
The grieving process, death.
Description of the training activity (methods, tools, timing, spaces):
Case studies in small and large groups.
Active pedagogy based on a given problem in small groups.
Tools: multimedia support (tools for collective writing, tools for presenting content)
Recommended number of participants: 25 max
Recommended duration: min 4- max 16 hours
Spaces: room equipped with video projector and movable chairs/online platform for online training.
Methodological suggestions for assessment (tools for initial, intermediate and final assessment if applicable):
Diagnostic assessment :
- Brain storming
Formative evaluation :
- Observation of group activities
Final assessment (of learning) :
- Questionnaire/test on theoretical elements
- Case study for the application of the theory
- Assessment questionnaire after 3 months
References in English: a proposal
- Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful ageing: The model of selective optimization with compensation.
- Fazio, Sam, PhD, Douglas Pace, NHA, Janice Flinner, MS, Beth Kallmyer, MSW, The Fundamentals of Person-Centered Care for Individuals With Dementia, The Gerontologist, Volume 58, Issue suppl_1, February 2018, Pages S10–S19, https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnx122
- Feil, N. (1989). Validation: An empathic approach to the care of dementia. Clinical Gerontologist: The Journal of Aging and Mental Health, 8(3), 89–94.
- Feil, N. Resolution: The Final Life Task. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 1985;25(2):91-105. https://doi:10.1177/0022167885252009
- Havighurst, R.J. (1961). Successful Aging, The Gerontologist, 1 (1), 8–13, https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/1.1.8
- Jones, M. (1999). Gentlecare: Changing the experience of Alzheimer’s disease in a positive way. Hartley & Marks Publishers
- Kitwood, T. (1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. Open university press.
- Koren, M. J. (2010). Person-Centered Care For Nursing Home Residents: The Culture-Change Movement. Health Affairs, 29(2), 312-317. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0966
- Lemaire Patrick & Leclère Mariel (2014) Strategy selection in Alzheimer patients: A study in arithmetic, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36:5, 507-516, https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2014.911248
- Luppi, E. (2018). Training in non-pharmacological approaches to dementia and Alzheimer. Ricerche Di Pedagogia E Didattica. Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 13(3), 123-152.
- Murphy, J. and Oliver, T. (2013), The use of Talking Mats to support people with dementia and their carers to make decisions together. Health & Social Care in the Community, 21: 171-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12005
- Pekkala, S. (2004), Semantic Fluency in Mild and Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, Department of Speech Sciences. Doctoral Dissertation http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:952-10-1646-9
- Ryan, R. and Deci, E (2000) Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55, 68-78
- Toseland, R. W., Diehl, M., Freeman, K., Manzanares, T., Naleppa, M., & McCallion, P. (1997). The impact of validation group therapy on nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 16(1), 31-50.
- Whitehouse, P. J., & George, D. (2008). The myth of Alzheimer’s: What you aren’t being told about today’s most dreaded diagnosis. Macmillan.
- Feil, N. (1991). Validation Therapy. Serving the Elderly (1st ed., pp. 89-116). CRC Press. 10.4324/9781315129181-6
- Feil, N. (1993). The Validation breakthrough: Simple techniques for communicating with people with “Alzheimer’s-type dementia.” Health Professions Press.
References in French: a proposal
Littérature de référence :
- Amyot Jean-Jacques (2016), Travailler avec les personnes âgées. Dunod
- Dujardin Kathy, Lemaire Patrick. (2008) Neuropsychologie du vieillissement normal et pathologique
- Pörtner Marlis, Zeller Odile (2012). Accompagnement des personnes âgées avec l’approche centrée sur la personne.
- Talpin Jean-Marc. (2017) Psychologie clinique du vieillissement normal et pathologique. Armand Colin.
- Adewole Ajadi Michaël. (2020) Maladies neurodégénératives: Les maladies neurodégénératives et leurs effets sur les conditions mentales et physiologiques de l’homme. Sciencia Scripts.
Outils pratiques :
- Feil Naomi. (2005). Validation: La méthode de Naomi Feil
- De Klerk Vicly-Rubin, Feil Naomi. Validation, mode d’emploi: La méthode en pratique. Des techniques simples pour communiquer avec les personnes atteintes de maladie d’Alzheimer ou démences apparentées